Article 32 of the Vienna Convention provides for supplementary means of interpretation. It reads:

‘Recourse may be had to supplementary means of interpretation including the preparatory work of the treaty and the circumstances of its conclusion, in order to confirm the meaning resulting from the application of Article 31, or to determine the meaning when the interpretation according to Article 31:

(a)leaves the meaning ambiguous or obscure; or

(b)leads to a result which is manifestly absurd or unreasonable.114

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