The VAT directive does not refer to ‘business’ but to ‘economic activities’.
A taxable person is one who independently carries out in any place any economic activity whatever the purpose or results of that activity (Directive 2006/112, art. 9(1)).
An ‘economic activity’ comprises any activity of producers, traders or persons supplying services including mining and agricultural activities and activities of the professions. The exploitation of tangible or intangible property for the purpose of obtaining income on a continuing basis is also considered to be an economic activity (Directive 2006/112, art. 9(1)).