The effects of the EU Treaty can be far-reaching and unexpected. In the Gottardo judgment (Gottardo v Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale (INPS) (Case C-55/00) [2002] ECR I-00413), a French contributor with an Italian contribution record argued successfully that she should be able to rely on a bilateral agreement between Italy and Switzerland to enable her to claim an Italian pension. She relied on art. 18 TFEU (formerly art. 12 TEC, which forbids discrimination on grounds of nationality, and what is now art. 48 TFEU (formerly art. 42 TEC), which provides for freedom of movement (the current basis for the social security coordination regulations).

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